Calculation of a house from a bar
A wooden house is particularly attractive. In addition to excellent aesthetics, it has many other advantages, which explains the growing popularity of this type of housing. A preliminary calculation of a house from a bar will help you determine the upcoming expenses with high accuracy and evaluate your financial capabilities for such a building.Calculation of the roof in the house of timber
Types of materials for wooden buildings
Before calculating a wooden building, it is necessary to decide what material to choose for it. Currently, developers are offered the following lumber for this:
- ordinary (sawn) and profiled solid wood timber;
- ordinary and profiled glued timber;
- calibrated (rounded) log.
These are the main lumber used in the construction of buildings made of wood, but the best among them are profiled glued beams. Its advantages are:
- minimum residual humidity in the range of 10-18%, virtually eliminating shrinkage and deformation of wood;
- ideal shape and accurate linear dimensions of the material, which greatly simplifies and facilitates the assembly of the building;
- increased strength in comparison with a similar solid wood beam;
- lack of need of additional consolidation of seams between bars.
These characteristics do not significantly affect the total amount of material for building the building - unless the consumption of timber will be slightly lower due to the reduction of waste losses.
In any case, a preliminary calculation of a house from a bar at the stage of a building project will allow you to optimize the costs of future construction in terms of the quantity and cost of the material. In order to correctly calculate the consumption of timber, logs at the first stage, it is necessary to carefully prepare the building design and carry out its detailing, taking into account the layout, size, space for window and door openings.
General principles for calculating lumber for wooden houses
To calculate the total amount of lumber for a wooden building, you need to divide this procedure into three stages - according to the number of main structural parts of any building. The calculation of a house from a bar is made taking into account the following elements:
- walls and partitions;
- truss frame.
For each of the named parts of the building, calculations are made taking into account the purpose of each element. For example, externally similar walls and internal partitions are assembled from timber of different sections, so the amount of material for structures of the same dimensions can differ by more than half.
Calculation of materials for walls and partitions
Walls and partitions of timber or logs form the log house. These are the main supporting structures of the building, and the walls, in addition, are responsible for its thermal insulation. You can calculate the amount of lumber for walls and partitions using the following algorithm:
1. Walls are measured along the outside perimeter and height of the building. The minimum cross-sectional size of a bar for a permanent residence is at least 150x150 mm. In this case, the beam width for the first (lower) crown should be greater than for subsequent rows.
2. The volume of material in cubic meters is converted to pieces, based on the overall size of the timber. The resulting amount is rounded up to an integer.
3. The volume occupied by window and door openings is subtracted from the total amount of material.
4. For piers (partitions) and houses of seasonal residence, a bar with a section of 100x100 mm is quite enough.
When performing a preliminary calculation of a house from a bar, start with the optimal wall thickness - this is 200-250 mm. This value guarantees proper thermal insulation, and the walls will not need additional insulation.
If you choose a calibrated log for the log, then its diameter should be at least 220-260 mm. When calculating a wooden bath, the wall thickness from a beam within 125-150 mm or from a log with a diameter of 200-240 mm is considered normal.
Developers who do not have sufficient experience may need help to draw up a building design and calculate the amount of materials. The easiest way to find it on the Internet. Here you can buy a finished project, get help in the form of tips on the forums from people who have already installed the log house with their own hands. However, the construction of walls does not limit the amount of work to build a house out of wood.
Calculation of materials for floors
Ceiling and basement form the volume of the premises (rooms). Their base is wooden beams, which are based on the foundation and load-bearing walls. In order to calculate the required amount of material for floors, the following requirements should be adhered to:
- the step width between adjacent beams should not exceed one meter;
- the optimal size of the cross-section of the beams is 100x150 mm;
- extreme beams should lie along the walls along the entire length;
- the number of beams, depending on the orientation of their installation, is defined as follows: the length or width of the building must be divided by the step size specified in the project and subtract one unit.
In order to correctly calculate a house from a timber in terms of the strength of the floors, you should know or predict the operational load of the building. So it will be possible not to lay excessive strength characteristics of the beams, saving a decent amount on this.Beams in a house made of timber
Where structural calculations are required, it is best to accept specialist assistance. You can’t do without it when implementing an individual project. The costs of design services are not so significant as not to consider such an option for preparing the construction of their own housing.Overlappings in the house from a bar
Calculation of materials for the rafter framearrangement of the roof in the house of timber
Unlike walls and ceilings, the rafter frame has a three-dimensional configuration. Therefore, it is much more difficult to calculate. In addition, it consists of many parts of different sizes, it uses other materials besides timber. The roof design should take into account the following factors:
- operational and wind loads;
- type and slope of the roof;
- type of roofing material and so on.
Carrying out a preliminary calculation of a house from a bar at the stage of designing a roof, one should not forget that when constructing a roof, a beam of different sections must be used. The step width between the rafters should not exceed 70 cm. The ridge beam and Mauerlat have the largest section. The rafter frame should provide the presence of overhangs of the roof, etc.Calculation of rafters in a house from a bar
In this case, you will need the help of specialists more than ever. For example, you can buy a finished house project from a bar or logs to adapt it to suit your needs. The main advantage of this solution is the elimination of the risk of errors, which can be much more expensive than the fee for the service received.
In the calculation of the roof, it is also necessary to include the lathing of the rafter frame. It can be continuous and lattice depending on the chosen roofing material. Since window and door blocks are most often bought ready-made, this preliminary calculation of a house from a timber can be considered completed. You just have to put the rough records in order to proceed with the purchase of the necessary materials.
In order for your project to get the proper look, it is necessary to complete the calculation of the house from the beam by finalizing its results. In the language of professionals, this is called compiling a material specification. This document allows you to control the amount of lumber in the assortment and the total cost of their acquisition. The specification is drawn up in the following order:
- summarizes the volume of materials in cubic meters according to basic parameters, such as section and types of timber, width, thickness and length of boards;
- lumber is converted into pieces, which greatly simplifies the procurement process and makes it easy to control their quantity and assortment.
We want to note that the typical sizes of timber, logs, boards have multiple values. You should be sure to consider this circumstance when drawing up a project. Otherwise, significant waste losses are inevitable. In other words, the dimensions of the log house should be measured in figures of the same order as standard materials. All the necessary information for this can be found in GOST 8486-86, GOST 24454-80 and other regulatory documents of woodworking.
The last stage of calculating a house from a bar with the preparation of a material specification for the quantity and cost of lumber will render you indispensable help in assessing your own capabilities. At this stage, you can still make changes to the project: for example, reduce the cost of it or, conversely, use better and more expensive materials.
The main properties of wood: useful information
When calculating a house from a bar, the main characteristics of the wood should be taken into account. This will provide a rational choice of materials and will allow you to perform a number of other important calculations (for example, when building the foundation of a house). Among the main properties and characteristics of lumber can be called:
- residual humidity: it is not recommended to use wood with a moisture content of over 23% in construction;
- density - this parameter directly affects the strength of the material and the weight of the building;
- resistance to moisture, rot, exposure to insect pests and other external factors.
In the totality of all the features, glued beams are best suited for walls. It has the lowest possible residual moisture, and, thanks to its multilayer structure, surpasses in strength the analogs of solid wood of any breed. In addition, glued lumber is usually treated with antiseptics and flame retardants.
For walls and partitions, we recommend using a profiled beam. It is significantly more expensive, but these costs will be fully offset by reducing the time of work, the cost of finishing, insulation and other costs that are unavoidable when using lower quality materials. Now you can safely begin to build a house out of timber with your own hands.