How to make a warm floor
Underfloor heating is a heating system in which the air in the room is heated from below, and the floor in which the heating elements are located is the heating device. The latter are water and electric.
The underfloor heating system works as part of a local or central heating system. Electric is connected to the mains and has greater autonomy.
In the classic form, the water system is arranged from pipes that are connected to the heating boiler. Heat is supplied to the floor by pipes in which a coolant circulates (water, ethylene glycol). The movement of the coolant is provided by the pump, heating - by a gas or electric boiler.
In a water-heated floor, pipes made of metal-plastic, polyethylene are used. The material does not corrode, does not accumulate deposits and keeps the area of the internal passage section constant.
There are two systems of water floors: concrete and floor. The first is the most common. Its device includes: preparation of the base; laying a special film that does not allow heat to pass through reflects it; pipe laying (usually they are flexible, long, seamless) in a certain order, ensuring the overlap of the entire area of the room; connecting their ends to the heating medium heating system and checking the operation of the system; the device of a concrete screed overlapping the pipes from above with a layer of at least 3 cm.
A floor or polystyrene system is used with a limited height of the premises and a floor load, if it is impossible to install a concrete screed when the old heating system is being reconstructed. It is based on polystyrene plates with a thickness of 8 ... 30 mm, in which there are special grooves. They put aluminum plates, and then pipes.
After finishing work, they arrange a floor covering from above. It should not be made of heat-insulating material: carpet, cork, insulated linoleum.
Electric heated floors are more diverse in terms of the heating elements used. They are cable, film, rod, using amorphous metal tape. Their use is justified by environmental advantages over radiator heating. They are anti-allergenic, evenly distribute heat, do not lead to the appearance of convection currents in the rooms.
The first electric underfloor heating was cable. They use a heating cable, which is placed under the floor or embedded in the top layer of the concrete screed. Connect the cable to a common house electrical network.
Today, an electric floor heating can be made mobile using a special film, which, when connected to the mains, emits heat in the infrared range. The film is spread on the surface of the floor covering, covered with a carpet and connected to an outlet.
Similarly to a film for the device of a heat-insulated floor, amorphous metal tapes representing heating mats are used. They are also laid on top of the floor - a concrete screed device is not required.